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Plywood vs. MDF

When it comes to selecting the right material for a construction or interior design project, the choice can often be daunting. Amongst the myriad options, two types of engineered wood, Plywood and Medium-Density Fibreboard (MDF), are commonly used. However, their application, cost-effectiveness, durability and aesthetic appeal differ significantly. In this article, we will explore the key differences between Plywood and MDF, helping you to make an informed decision for your next project.

What is Plywood?

What is Plywood

Plywood, an engineered wood product, is made by gluing together thin layers, or 'plies', of wood veneer. Each layer is oriented with its grain running at right angles to the adjacent layer. This cross-graining technique improves strength, reduces the tendency to split, and prevents expansion and shrinkage, providing improved dimensional stability.

Plywood is available in various grades: A, B, C, and D. ‘A’ stands for the best quality, with virtually no blemishes and very well sanded. Grade D typically contains up to the maximum number of blemishes allowed.

What is MDF?

What is MDF

Medium-Density Fibreboard (MDF) is a type of engineered wood composed of small wood fibres, unlike plywood, which is made of layers of wood veneers. The fibres are combined with wax and a resin binder, and formed into panels by applying high temperature and pressure.

MDF is generally denser than plywood. It is made up of separated fibres, but can be used as a building material similar in application to plywood. It is stronger, denser, and heavier than particle board.

Plywood vs. MDF: What's the Difference?

Strength and Durability

Plywood's cross-laminated structure gives it a high strength-to-weight ratio, and it is also strong across two axes. It is highly resistant to impact damage, which contributes to its longevity. In contrast, MDF is typically denser, which makes it strong but also more susceptible to heavy weights causing sag over time.

Plywood is more resistant to water compared to MDF. The adhesive used in plywood is water-resistant, and higher grades of plywood are even more so. In contrast, MDF swells and breaks when subjected to intense water exposure.


Typically, MDF is the less expensive option, but this isn't always the case. The cost of both materials depends on the quality, brand, and other factors. If cost is a major concern, it's essential to compare prices of specific products rather than relying on a general rule.


MDF is generally easier to work with than plywood. Its dense and uniform structure makes it easy to cut, drill, and carve without splintering or chipping. However, it is heavy, and its dust can be an irritant, necessitating the use of protective equipment when working with it.

Plywood, on the other hand, can chip or splinter along the edges when cut, but this can be mitigated using a fine-toothed saw blade and by applying masking tape over the cutting line.


When it comes to aesthetics, plywood offers a more natural grain pattern because it's made from actual wood layers. Plywood can be stained and finished to look like many different species of wood, making it a versatile choice for many projects.

MDF, on the other hand, has a smooth surface without grain, making it a perfect choice for painted finishes. However, it cannot replicate the natural wood appearance that plywood can achieve.

Environmental Impact

When considering the environmental impact, both materials have pros and cons. Plywood can be produced from fast-growing, sustainable forests and is biodegradable. However, the production process can involve harmful chemicals.

MDF, while made from waste wood products, uses much more energy in its production and also involves potentially harmful formaldehyde resins. In recent years, however, manufacturers have been moving towards reducing and eliminating these harmful compounds.


In conclusion, the choice between plywood and MDF depends on the project at hand. If strength, moisture resistance, and a natural wood look are the priorities, plywood is the clear winner. If cost, ease of work, and a smooth surface are more important, MDF is a viable option.

However, always consider the specific requirements of your project and the qualities of the particular product you are looking at. Remember that there can be vast differences in quality and characteristics within each type of material.

Understanding the unique properties of plywood and MDF will allow you to select the most suitable material for your specific needs, ensuring the longevity, functionality, and aesthetic appeal of your projects.

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